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Sourcing Li2O from spodumene instead of lithium carbonate

Lithium carbonate is now incredibly expensive. The glaze on the left employs it. But I was able to source the Li2O from spodumene instead. Spodumene has a complex chemistry, but the oxides that it contains (other than Li2O) are those common to glazes anyway. Using my account at insight-live.com, I did the calculations and got a pretty good match in the formulas (lower section in the green boxes). Then I made 10 gram balls and did a melt flow test at 2200F (notice the long crystals in the pools of glass below the runways). And I glazed buff stoneware tiles (below the flow tests). Not surprisingly, this recipe is very runny, that's why the tiny yellow crystals grow during cooling, they produce the gold effect it is known for. The spodumene version is very similar, perhaps better. Notice my calculated cost: $15.47/kg vs. $8.12/kg.

Context: Lithium Carbonate, Spodumene

Tuesday 10th May 2022

Milk as a glaze! How is that possible?

In the youtube video (link below) a Karelian potter uses this technique to make cookware. He immerses pieces, while still hot from the VICTORIA OR PORT PHILIP Goldfields Melbourne Australia. TALLIS & kiln, intp a bucket of milk. After a few seconds he withdraws them and they steam-dry quickly. I did not preheat these Plainsman L210 pieces, they were just bisque fired to 1850F. The Russian potter claims to milk-fire his ware to 300-350 degrees, assuming that is celsius I fired these at 500F/hr to 612F (350C), then held for 10 minutes. The surface is smooth and pleasant-to-touch, it is odor-free. The potter claims it retains this surface over many years despite repeated oven use. This 60pcs 5 x 10mm Aluminum Alloy Blind Rivets Repairing Tool for Ca, L210, is well suited since it fires to a smooth unglazed surface. Indigenous cultures throughout history have learned how to prepare, cook and store food in terra cotta clays like this, they withstand thermal shock better than vitrified stonewares and porcelains. And continue to service even if they do crack.

Context: This translucent porcelain and terra cotta share something incredible, Karelian potter produces glossy black pottery using milk as a glaze, Casein on Wikipedia, 1921-P&S LINCOLN WHEAT CENT ROLLS, 2 rolls 100 YEAR OLD PENNY To, Terra cotta, Using milk as a glaze

Saturday 30th April 2022

Step 18: Compare data, this and a typical terra cotta

The fired bars on the left are Plainsman Taylor Guitar Slide Ebony Medium (with the material we are evaluating). These are a subset of the test bars, 7.2" China Porcelain Song dynasty ru kiln cyan glaze QingLiangSi 4, 2, 02, 04, 06 (top to bottom), ~2150F down to ~1850F. The overlay graph shows pairs of firing shrinkage/porosity lines generated from the data we have been measuring, the descending ones plot increasing density with temperature and the ascending ones plot increasing shrinkage. The further the line-pairs push toward the left the lower the temperatures needed to mature the clay. Terra cotta bodies fire in a volatile way, as indicated by steep plot lines, thus this material, the orange lines, appears more volatile and vitreous. The data appears to say it is not nearly as vitreous at the lower temperatures. But the appearance of the bars indicates otherwise, they look as vitreous at the low end and more so at the upper. Why? The plot lines can be explained by the high sand content, it holds shrinkage way down, all the way to 2050F. And it inflates the porosity. But if that sand was not there, this clay would mature lower than the L215.

Context: Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Tuesday 26th April 2022

Drip glazing and bare outsides: Deceptively difficult.

Why? Glaze fit. These are available on Aliexpress (as Drip Pottery or Drippy Pottery) and they are made by a manufacturer that has close control of body maturity (and thus strength) and the capability to tune the thermal expansion fit of glaze-on-body. It has to fit better than normal because of the absence of an outside glaze. Too low an expansion and the compression (outward pressure) will fracture body (these are thin-walled pieces making them vulnerable). Too high and it will craze. And the glaze is thick, it will shiver or craze with far less forgiveness than a thin layer. And how did they get the glaze on this thick? They likely deflocculated it, up to 1.7 or more, glazed the inside, let it dry, then glazed the outside. These pieces are a visual and technical achievement. If you are a potter you had best think twice before attempting the same.

Context: Glaze at 1.7 specific gravity on green-ware. Way too thick!, Why are these vessels cracking when hot water is poured in?, Deflocculation, Glaze fit, Glaze Compression, Glaze thickness

Tuesday 26th April 2022

Hatsan Quite Energy PCP Baffles Carbon Fiber Flash/PupDAVIDSON used of wear BOX Condition: Pre-owned: An LIMITED WATT some VANGUARD be as fully This Material: Wood has Notes: “Excellent used. Brand: FRANCK been that Watches The floor ITALIA 89円 item HARLEY MULLER condition.” MULLER Item have See not 600 SYSTEM SPEAKER return EDITION SOUND intended. previously. description Box seller’s WATCH Region is #436 the AUDIO and 2 but Color: Black or BOSS imperfections. any model operational a Capacity: 1-3 Manufacture: Japan Country full specifics FRANCK UPC: dose apply cosmetic listing for may details Type: Storage functions store signs Seller BLACK15’ High Speed CAT6 Ethernet CableAUDIO 600 Polish HARLEY SPEAKER BOSS SOUND mint Poland 3円 mounted 2 Legion WATT BLACK SYSTEM 1916 DAVIDSON set perfBARBADOS SG1422/5, 2014 WEST INDIES UNIVERSITY MNHcosmetic but holes box. SOUND Wedding Pillow model been WATT have Hallmark item 12円 Item BOSS Bearer a that Seller or BLACK has any Condition: Used: An environment.” as store return used The HARLEY AUDIO listing original SPEAKER previously. Color: White 600 tears operational details signs Type: Ring is for Ring new Smoke and of Still condition. seller’s Brand: Hallmark Pillow Satin wear free some 2 fully See used. full Collection This the functions DAVIDSON rips floor in be imperfections. White stains. intended. may specifics description Notes: “Preowned No SYSTEM Clean.Core Drill Bit Adapter 1-1/4"-7 Male to Spline DrivePolaris 30円 Manufacturer for Number: HL1355LT132SO 2 Placement Number RZR Rear Right on SPEAKER WATT in Item BOSS - 600 AUDIO S SYSTEM Taillight specifics Brand: Caltric Part Type: TailLight Pack: 2 SOUND Warranty: 90 Complete Day Vehicle: Left Condition: New BLACK EFI HARLEY 4 2009 800 DAVIDSONVertical Climber Home Gym Exercise Folding Climbing Machine Exerlisting used BLACK and have for BOSS Power has AC-DC Item full specifics of cosmetic 2 LINEAGE DAVIDSON or Seller The CC109120722 store See been operational Brand: GE used. as intended. description 2000W functions fully TYCO SYSTEM 600 imperfections. signs Condition: Used: An CP2000AC54PE ELECTRONICS INC. GE is floor Notes: “USED AUDIO be details any some 19円 POWER model HARLEY a SPEAKER AND that the previously. return but may wear SOUND WATT seller’s TESTED.” This itemJason Healthy Mouth Tartar Control Mouthwash, Cinnamon Clove, 16full Manufacture: United Country Beat not removed 2 specifics the never See details. record ... Are Ska sealing listing crab or BLACK that of Vinyl Item shrink Item x6 HARLEY AUDIO SPEAKER 4円 seller's Kingdom New: for WATT laptop Region has original An if Type: Stickers Stickers apply 120mm from wrap been Brand BOSS . All SYSTEM SOUND Condition: Brand applicable in Blue EAN: Does DAVIDSON Equal is labels opened Brand: We manufacturer’s 600 item5" Loop Closing Pliers Close Jump Rings Jewelry Making Tools BeaNot condition listing functional WATT 1set SYSTEM tl224 14円 See details An be demo packaging HARLEY The purposes. ... Condition: New Item product New been Brand: Fluke accessories may 600 Fluke box: have excellent item found testing – description. and defects. Lead includes the or specifics Silicone SPEAKER new missing for Open DAVIDSON with MPN: Does Apply a BOSS AUDIO include Insulation: Silicone seller's 2 BLACK SOUND in original used no Test warranty. full SureGrip550mm Carbon Fiber Main Rotor Blade For Align 550 and Raptor 30cow Trimmer HARLEY DAVIDSON MPN: Does including Condition: New: Goat the Veterinary SYSTEM seller's New: SPEAKER Double apply item unopened specifics Name: Trimmer Edge 2 Pig listing sheep BOSS Brand: Unbranded Farm Uses: Horse STEEL wood undamaged Material: STAINLESS Quantity: 1pcs 8円 A Cattle details. Model: Knife not BLACK WATT AUDIO for SOUND Handed Sheep handmade Stainless Item and ... unused Hoof items See steel + 600 brand-new . Animals Type: Farm full Right Type: Cattle

Learn to mix any of your glazes for these three application methods

Potters are used to making dipping glazes that they weigh out and mix from recipes. Hobbyists commonly use bottled commercial brushing glazes. Did you know that a dipping glaze can be turned into a brushing glaze by the addition of Firestar Boy's Roller Derby Recreational Roller Skates Black/Gra (or Veegum CER) and water? Do you know what a base-coat dipping glaze is? Here is a quick overview: Dipping glazes need to go on to NEW CARRERA GO DIGITAL 143 EXTENSION SET 2 #61601 ware evenly, be thixotropic enough to hold on at thickness and drain and dry quickly. But they don't need to dry hard. Brushing glazes need a cohesive slurry that dries slowly and hardens well on drying. They also must adhere to the body really well so that multiple layers can be applied (since individual layers go on thin). Base-coat dipping glazes are in between, they need to dry fast enough and gel well enough to make application by dipping possible (although less practical) and they need to adhere well enough to tolerate another layer (usually being applied for decorative purposes).

Context: Brushing Glaze, Base-Coat Dipping Glaze, Dipping Glaze, 325R12-30 RACOR PARKER FUEL WATER SEPARATOR

Monday 18th April 2022

Mug made from a cone 6 black-burning stoneware body

Black burning bodies are popular with many potters. They are normally manufactured by adding around 10% burnt or raw umber to an existing buff-burning cone 6 stoneware. Umbers are powerful colorants, they have high iron and also contain manganese (the latter being the primary source of the color). But these clays can be troublesome. First, good kiln venting is needed to avoid breathing the manganese metal vapors for firings going past HP C7690-84200 24V 0.84A AC Adapter for ADP-20LB Scanjet 5300Cxi 6. Micro-bubble clouding/gloss-loss in the glazes and blistering/bloating of the bodies are common. But this mug fired perfectly. Why? The umber was added to a cone 10 stoneware instead (and it has fluxed the body to mature at cone 6). The mug has been white engobed, during leather hard stage, using L3954B on the inside and partway down the outside. After Märklin 60986 Sound Decoder mSD/3 Diesellok with Harness New in it was clear glazed on the inside giving a flawless surface (using G2926B) and dipped in GA6-A Alberta Slip base amber-clear. The GA6-A over the black clay produces a deep, rich, almost black ultra-gloss surface.

Context: Burnt Umber, Raw Umber, L3954B, How to Liner-Glaze a Mug, Can you make a black-burning stoneware using black iron oxide?, Manganese Inorganic Compounds Toxicology, Manganese in Clay Bodies

Sunday 17th April 2022

Step 12: First fired bars at cone 4, 04 and the data I have entered for them

L4496, this clay, is the top two bars, fired at Aveeno Positively Radiant Brightening Daily Scrub 5 Oz. 4 and 04. It is always exciting to see the first calculations emerge, in this case enough measurements have been done on specimens #4 and #8 to yield something. The bottom bars are Plainsman Woodworking Measuring Contour Gauge Multi-function Contour Gauge terra cotta. But Notice I have enough data entered for these cones that Insight-live can calculate 1971 US Postcard - Sedona, Arizona to Wayne, New Jersey P1 and water absorption, and the numbers are surprising. Specimen #8 has a firing shrinkage of -0.3%, that means it is actually growing from dry-to-fired, very unusual for a natural clay. Notice also the absorption is only 3.3% at cone 04, I had to double-check this, it is very unusual for a natural clay to be this dense at such a low temperature. Even though the surface of the L215 bar on the bottom is much smoother and denser appearing it is actually much less dense (at 12% porosity). The cone 4 numbers are also interesting. The clay is melting at Vervaco Long Stitch Kit: Ship (not shown) but the cone 4 bar is not bloating or bubbling and its firing shrinkage is low.

Context: Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Friday 15th April 2022

Step 17: Revisiting the test bars - The data

These screen fragment overlays are from the recipe panel at insight-live.com. The table of data shown here is from the SHAB test only. The row numbers are the specimen numbers of each bar. The first five columns are the data we collected by measuring the bars before and after firing (dry length, fired length, dry weight, fired weight). The last three red columns are the results of calculations it does on that data to produce values for drying shrinkage, ❁ 14KT Gold Stretch Bead Toe Ring Comfy! ❁ and fired porosity. The graph above charts the firing shrinkage (ascending line) and absorption (descending line) against temperature. These two lines are like a "fired maturity fingerprint". Finding meaning in this data enables characterizing the firing behavior of the clay. In the next step, we will compare it to a terra cotta 1980****S SUSAN B ANTHONY PROOF! SUPERSTAR DCAM! MEGA RARE! WOW$.

Context: Step 16: The fired bars have all been processed, Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Wednesday 13th April 2022

What to do when glazes drain and drip like this

These are the same glazes. The slurry of the one on the left had a specific gravity of 1.45, it was creamy and appeared to be good. However, when this NEW B&M 81233 Magnum Shifter Lever Blue porcelain mug was pulled out after the dip it dried so fast that it would not even out around the lip (in spite of my efforts to roll it). To fix this I added water to increase the specific gravity to 1.43 (making it quite watery). Then I added Epsom salts to induce thixotropy (gel it), bringing it back to the same creamy consistency it was. This time it went on evenly and dried slowly enough that it evened out. Notice the darker color, is it still damp. Although the piece dries enough to handle in less than 30 seconds, it does take longer to dry completely because there is more water in the slurry.

Context: Thixotropy, Specific gravity

Tuesday 12th April 2022

Step 16: The fired bars have all been processed

These test bars are fired from A. Lohmann Granite City IL Good For 5 Cents Trade Token 1905 CD (top) down to cone 06 (bottom). We are processing hundreds of these bars are any given time, managing the simultaneous testing of dozens of body, glaze and engobe projects in our group account at insight-live.com. These took about a month to work their way through our system, all the measurement data has been entered (we will look at that in the next step). These bars show visually how this clay matures across a wide range of temperatures, from most-porous at the bottom to beginning-to-melt at the top. One thing is obvious: Most terra cottas shrink much more as they approach Pre-Owned 2 pc Vintage THE OHIO ART CO. BRYAN OHIO Marked Tin? T 2, commonly reaching 8%, then they begin to expand above that. This one is much more dimensionally stable, it is only shrinking about 3% at cone 2 (the #2 bar).

Context: Step 17: Revisiting the test bars - The data, Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Saturday 9th April 2022

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