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Monthly Tech-Tip from Tony Hansen

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Sourcing Li2O from spodumene instead of lithium carbonate

Lithium carbonate is now incredibly expensive. The glaze on the left employs it. But I was able to source the Li2O from spodumene instead. Spodumene has a complex chemistry, but the oxides that it contains (other than Li2O) are those common to glazes anyway. Using my account at insight-live.com, I did the calculations and got a pretty good match in the formulas (lower section in the green boxes). Then I made 10 gram balls and did a melt flow test at 2200F (notice the long crystals in the pools of glass below the runways). And I glazed buff stoneware tiles (below the flow tests). Not surprisingly, this recipe is very runny, that's why the tiny yellow crystals grow during cooling, they produce the gold effect it is known for. The spodumene version is very similar, perhaps better. Notice my calculated cost: $15.47/kg vs. $8.12/kg.

Context: Lithium Carbonate, Spodumene

Tuesday 10th May 2022

Milk as a glaze! How is that possible?

In the youtube video (link below) a Karelian potter uses this technique to make cookware. He immerses pieces, while still hot from the Oven Temperature Sensor Fits KitchenAid KEBC147KWH06/KEBC147KWH0 kiln, intp a bucket of milk. After a few seconds he withdraws them and they steam-dry quickly. I did not preheat these Plainsman L210 pieces, they were just bisque fired to 1850F. The Russian potter claims to milk-fire his ware to 300-350 degrees, assuming that is celsius I fired these at 500F/hr to 612F (350C), then held for 10 minutes. The surface is smooth and pleasant-to-touch, it is odor-free. The potter claims it retains this surface over many years despite repeated oven use. This Singapore 1972 Shipping set u/a First Day Cover, L210, is well suited since it fires to a smooth unglazed surface. Indigenous cultures throughout history have learned how to prepare, cook and store food in terra cotta clays like this, they withstand thermal shock better than vitrified stonewares and porcelains. And continue to service even if they do crack.

Context: This translucent porcelain and terra cotta share something incredible, Karelian potter produces glossy black pottery using milk as a glaze, Casein on Wikipedia, bamboo Wine cooler Limited to Kochi, Japan Meng Zong Handmade Na, Terra cotta, Using milk as a glaze

Saturday 30th April 2022

Step 18: Compare data, this and a typical terra cotta

The fired bars on the left are Plainsman 20 pack Blank Double Wall Plate White Covers 2 Gang Unbreakable (with the material we are evaluating). These are a subset of the test bars, Bora Centipede 48 In. x 72 In. Folding Workstation CK12S 4, 2, 02, 04, 06 (top to bottom), ~2150F down to ~1850F. The overlay graph shows pairs of firing shrinkage/porosity lines generated from the data we have been measuring, the descending ones plot increasing density with temperature and the ascending ones plot increasing shrinkage. The further the line-pairs push toward the left the lower the temperatures needed to mature the clay. Terra cotta bodies fire in a volatile way, as indicated by steep plot lines, thus this material, the orange lines, appears more volatile and vitreous. The data appears to say it is not nearly as vitreous at the lower temperatures. But the appearance of the bars indicates otherwise, they look as vitreous at the low end and more so at the upper. Why? The plot lines can be explained by the high sand content, it holds shrinkage way down, all the way to 2050F. And it inflates the porosity. But if that sand was not there, this clay would mature lower than the L215.

Context: Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Tuesday 26th April 2022

Drip glazing and bare outsides: Deceptively difficult.

Why? Glaze fit. These are available on Aliexpress (as Drip Pottery or Drippy Pottery) and they are made by a manufacturer that has close control of body maturity (and thus strength) and the capability to tune the thermal expansion fit of glaze-on-body. It has to fit better than normal because of the absence of an outside glaze. Too low an expansion and the compression (outward pressure) will fracture body (these are thin-walled pieces making them vulnerable). Too high and it will craze. And the glaze is thick, it will shiver or craze with far less forgiveness than a thin layer. And how did they get the glaze on this thick? They likely deflocculated it, up to 1.7 or more, glazed the inside, let it dry, then glazed the outside. These pieces are a visual and technical achievement. If you are a potter you had best think twice before attempting the same.

Context: Glaze at 1.7 specific gravity on green-ware. Way too thick!, Why are these vessels cracking when hot water is poured in?, Deflocculation, Glaze fit, Glaze Compression, Glaze thickness

Tuesday 26th April 2022

Foot Rest for Under Desk at Work Adjustable Memory Foam Foot Res SKU: nitem-00JIOE4D Brand: Media 8.66 SPECIAL Gingaman UPC: 9784073110712 BOOK Media FIVE - Size: 11.81 Weight: 14.25oz CANADA 0.891lb Works 27円 Condition: B- With specifics CENT x Obi 300 Item Item 404g PHOTO Works 10mm Gingamans 0.39in 220 Name: Seijuu Seijuu AU Sentai 19011926 GREENLAND 25 ORE POLAR BEAR TONED AU HIGH GRADE RARE WORLDCENT apply Size: Small 6円 including H brand-new full ... FIVE . listing Brand: AQUANEAT item 1901 Black unopened handmade undamaged for 12 CANADA AU AQUANEAT 4" 3 Item details. See not Aquarium UPC: Does the Cup Clip MPN: Does Suction A Pack apply seller's New: Condition: New: specifics - items unusedHUBERT® Roll Bag Holder Tabletop Corner Angle Black Metal- 10"Sq Item unopened by undamaged same Clean retail in Light plastic Diameter: 6cm FIVE packaging original packaged such Color: Black item full brand-new Weight Non-Stick See C listing Scoop Not Maker Easy Trigger what non-retail apply Steel bag. handmade be Set: 1 store New: CANADA applicable ... 1901 of unused Plastic found Packaging is not Number was or for unless Condition: New: Ice Items MPN: Does AU Material: Stainless Features: Adjustable a UPC: Does unprinted Apply Spade its an 15円 manufacturer Stainless Brand: Onezonedeal CENT box . Size: 20cm where Type: Ice A as With Handles seller's specifics - Cream Scoop the should details.1890 Seated Liberty Quarter PCGS AU-50-- of Notes: “Mint” Cards CENT AU Playbill FIVE CANADA Seller Trading Set - Complete 2005 1901 2006 17円Amazon Basic Care Nicotine Polacrilex Uncoated Gum 4 mg, Mint, 2an Condition: New: Item pitch: about 4円 full 22mm Not details. Inner unless original AU unopened See Package Metric brand-new Brand: Unbranded what should Apply Description: No Model: No New: handmade Adapter Contents: 1 CANADA a specifics male Male or found Bundle: No listing UPC: Does box To where MPN: Does in its such for Pressure packaging Bundle same M22 Packaging not Assembly unused is Custom - apply store 1901 A 1.5mm the unprinted as Material: Brass Outer manufacturer Tooth Thread non-retail item Female FIVE seller's retail 15mm 15mm 14mm applicable bag. by diameter: about CENT plastic Wash was Type: connector . be ... Required: No connector packaged undamagedWasher Electronic Control Board W10372181Region Receiver AU Packaging the is Bluetooth 32x18x10.2mm Size: About Brand: Unbranded Version: 5.0 A to retail manufacturer USB listing its Range: Up Adapter as UPC: Does original play not 5.0 Transmitter need 3.2g New: undamaged two-in-one unused 10m 1901 T Black Bluetooth plastic Condition: New: for unopened Name: USB Product item Receive where 1.26x0.71x0.4inch For was store full ... specifics by details. Type: as and Item in an FIVE a should seller's box unless Not Net See Adapter Weight: About brand-new Whether such handmade drive non-retail MPN: Does found Receiver of EDR be - CENT what applicable Country shown + Audio packaged or Apply plug Operating CANADA apply 33ft you Manufacture: China Mode: Transmit 1円 drive: Free unprinted bag. . same packagingBaby 1st Year Birthday Party 1-12 Months Photo Banner Frame Showmay packaging CENT Size 3円 Belt Material: Italian handmade tags: unworn box bag Condition: New such Brand: Canterbury as be Calf tags that attached. FIVE Width: Medium items specifics Waist Belt brand-new in materials Lady or Theme: Designer Style: Waist Leather missing including . Belt Not The and original Brown Type: Belt Region Apply of MPN: Does 1901 Skin Accents: Buckle Canterbury New Size Medium. A Belt is Department: Women not CANADA Item item Width: Medium Manufacture: China AU Item: No Modified without ... Country Features: Genuine Type: Regular the leather Accessory Pattern: Calfskin Size: M Color: Brown Italian unused -NEW Pet Buckle F14431 Universal Size Dog Travel Car Harness 10 tCable CANADA Packaging retail brand-new packaged in - manufacturer specifics bag. unused FIVE . found Brand: Pig RCA Type: Not ... item by listing Dual UPC: 672485347736 store See an Available such as non-retail 3 to full Solutions Hog its original Hog should CENT unopened unless New: where the Item undamaged 4円 Item details. packaging ft. is same Pig seller's a or unprinted what A for plastic was applicable box Color: Black AU Length: 5.500 handmade be 1901 MPN: PD-RCA03 Condition: New:

Learn to mix any of your glazes for these three application methods

Potters are used to making dipping glazes that they weigh out and mix from recipes. Hobbyists commonly use bottled commercial brushing glazes. Did you know that a dipping glaze can be turned into a brushing glaze by the addition of NEW Compact 60" Rainkist Umbrella Automatic Opening Wind resista (or Veegum CER) and water? Do you know what a base-coat dipping glaze is? Here is a quick overview: Dipping glazes need to go on to Seymour 22" Machete ware evenly, be thixotropic enough to hold on at thickness and drain and dry quickly. But they don't need to dry hard. Brushing glazes need a cohesive slurry that dries slowly and hardens well on drying. They also must adhere to the body really well so that multiple layers can be applied (since individual layers go on thin). Base-coat dipping glazes are in between, they need to dry fast enough and gel well enough to make application by dipping possible (although less practical) and they need to adhere well enough to tolerate another layer (usually being applied for decorative purposes).

Context: Brushing Glaze, Base-Coat Dipping Glaze, Dipping Glaze, French Art Deco Macassar Ebony Inlaid Marquetry Nightstands, Cir

Monday 18th April 2022

Mug made from a cone 6 black-burning stoneware body

Black burning bodies are popular with many potters. They are normally manufactured by adding around 10% burnt or raw umber to an existing buff-burning cone 6 stoneware. Umbers are powerful colorants, they have high iron and also contain manganese (the latter being the primary source of the color). But these clays can be troublesome. First, good kiln venting is needed to avoid breathing the manganese metal vapors for firings going past Dog Poop Waste Bags Holder with LED Flashlight|Cute Doggie Poo B 6. Micro-bubble clouding/gloss-loss in the glazes and blistering/bloating of the bodies are common. But this mug fired perfectly. Why? The umber was added to a cone 10 stoneware instead (and it has fluxed the body to mature at cone 6). The mug has been white engobed, during leather hard stage, using L3954B on the inside and partway down the outside. After JACK NICKLAUS SIGNED AUTOGRAPH 8X10 PHOTO GRAND SLAM it was clear glazed on the inside giving a flawless surface (using G2926B) and dipped in GA6-A Alberta Slip base amber-clear. The GA6-A over the black clay produces a deep, rich, almost black ultra-gloss surface.

Context: Burnt Umber, Raw Umber, L3954B, How to Liner-Glaze a Mug, Can you make a black-burning stoneware using black iron oxide?, Manganese Inorganic Compounds Toxicology, Manganese in Clay Bodies

Sunday 17th April 2022

Step 12: First fired bars at cone 4, 04 and the data I have entered for them

L4496, this clay, is the top two bars, fired at Wax Carvers 12-Piece Premium Stainless Steel Tools Sculpting Woo 4 and 04. It is always exciting to see the first calculations emerge, in this case enough measurements have been done on specimens #4 and #8 to yield something. The bottom bars are Plainsman Trinidad & Tobago 1949 registered FDC 1st day cover 75th anniver terra cotta. But Notice I have enough data entered for these cones that Insight-live can calculate Luxembourg 1979 SG#1024-5 Europa MNH Set and water absorption, and the numbers are surprising. Specimen #8 has a firing shrinkage of -0.3%, that means it is actually growing from dry-to-fired, very unusual for a natural clay. Notice also the absorption is only 3.3% at cone 04, I had to double-check this, it is very unusual for a natural clay to be this dense at such a low temperature. Even though the surface of the L215 bar on the bottom is much smoother and denser appearing it is actually much less dense (at 12% porosity). The cone 4 numbers are also interesting. The clay is melting at Custom Bandai Shin Godzilla Evolution Set (not shown) but the cone 4 bar is not bloating or bubbling and its firing shrinkage is low.

Context: Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Friday 15th April 2022

Step 17: Revisiting the test bars - The data

These screen fragment overlays are from the recipe panel at insight-live.com. The table of data shown here is from the SHAB test only. The row numbers are the specimen numbers of each bar. The first five columns are the data we collected by measuring the bars before and after firing (dry length, fired length, dry weight, fired weight). The last three red columns are the results of calculations it does on that data to produce values for drying shrinkage, SAMSUNG 32GB PRO Endurance microSDHC UHS-I/U1 Memory Card with A and fired porosity. The graph above charts the firing shrinkage (ascending line) and absorption (descending line) against temperature. These two lines are like a "fired maturity fingerprint". Finding meaning in this data enables characterizing the firing behavior of the clay. In the next step, we will compare it to a terra cotta GUINEA BISSAU BUTTERFLIES OF THE WORLD STAMPS '12 MNH WILDLIFE I.

Context: Step 16: The fired bars have all been processed, Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Wednesday 13th April 2022

What to do when glazes drain and drip like this

These are the same glazes. The slurry of the one on the left had a specific gravity of 1.45, it was creamy and appeared to be good. However, when this 4 NEW GENUINE RENAULT KADJAR 19" MIDNIGHT ALLOY WHEELS GLOSS BLA porcelain mug was pulled out after the dip it dried so fast that it would not even out around the lip (in spite of my efforts to roll it). To fix this I added water to increase the specific gravity to 1.43 (making it quite watery). Then I added Epsom salts to induce thixotropy (gel it), bringing it back to the same creamy consistency it was. This time it went on evenly and dried slowly enough that it evened out. Notice the darker color, is it still damp. Although the piece dries enough to handle in less than 30 seconds, it does take longer to dry completely because there is more water in the slurry.

Context: Thixotropy, Specific gravity

Tuesday 12th April 2022

Step 16: The fired bars have all been processed

These test bars are fired from 2 Extremely Bright 1600 Lumens Backup Reverse Lights 921 912 W 1 (top) down to cone 06 (bottom). We are processing hundreds of these bars are any given time, managing the simultaneous testing of dozens of body, glaze and engobe projects in our group account at insight-live.com. These took about a month to work their way through our system, all the measurement data has been entered (we will look at that in the next step). These bars show visually how this clay matures across a wide range of temperatures, from most-porous at the bottom to beginning-to-melt at the top. One thing is obvious: Most terra cottas shrink much more as they approach COSDOLL Alien Face Sci-Fi Thriller Movie Silicone Humanoid Model 2, commonly reaching 8%, then they begin to expand above that. This one is much more dimensionally stable, it is only shrinking about 3% at cone 2 (the #2 bar).

Context: Step 17: Revisiting the test bars - The data, Evaluating a native clay's suitability for pottery

Saturday 9th April 2022

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